Hormonal changes: Puberty, monthly menstruation,
and pregnancy increase blood flow to the gums,
making them more sensitive to bacteria. Women in
menopause may experience dry mouth, a decrease
in saliva production, which allows bacteria to thrive.
Chronic diseases and stress: Conditions that
weaken the immune system, such as cancer,
diabetes, leukemia, HIV, and constant stress, can
impair the body’s ability to fight infection.
Poor nutrition: A body deprived of important
nutrients is also less able to fight infection.
Medications: Anti-epilepsy and heart medications
can cause the gums to become enlarged, making it
easier for bacteria to become trapped and inflame
Smoking/tobacco/vaping use: Smoking is one of
the greatest risk factors for gum disease. Because
the mouth is drier, plaque builds up quickly on the
teeth. Lower levels of oxygen in the bloodstream also
prevent gums from healing properly once infected.